6. Morphological change



  • o(u)r (colour/color)
  • -re/er (centre/center)
  • s/z, e.g. industrialis/z- (nouns same as verbs)
  • noun (plural, spelling): -o/oes (zeros, zeroes)

Morphology: general

  • compound words: at Word and Phrase, do *-*, nouns, then select 8-10 words where could be 1 word, 2 words, or hyphenated, e.g. short cut, short-cut, shortcut
  • noun: -ess (e.g. authoress)
  • noun: female NP, -woman
  • adjective: -ic/-ical (historic, historical)

Morphology: +/- regular forms

  • Noun (plural): Latin forms: -i (octopi), -a/-ae (datum/data, formula/formulae)
  • Nouns: the sheeps / the fishes / the mooses, fishes are, etc

Verb (simple past): e.g. [p*] verb

  • learnt/learned, burnt/burned, spilled, kneeled, dreamed, leaped
  • drank/drunk, sank/sunk, sprang/sprung
  • shrank/shrunk, stank/stunk, span/spun/spinned
  • hung/hanged, lit/lighted, spat/spit/spitted
  • fit/fitted, knit/knitted, snuck/sneaked
  • strove/strived, dove/dived, drove/drived
  • shone/shined, wove/weaved, abode/abided

Verb (past participle): e.g. [have]/ [be] verb-ed

  • struck/stricken/striked, shaven/shaved, woken/waked
  • thriven/thrived, striven/strived, proven/proved
  • shown/showed, swollen/swelled, sown/sowed
  • sewn/sewed, sawn/sawed, shorn/sheared
  • got/gotten, forgot/forgotten, bit/bitten
  • beat/beaten, sped/speeded, shrunk/shrunken
  • lied/lay, lain/laid (simple past and past participle)


  1. http://sheets.google.com, then New, Blank spreadsheet
  2. Copy and paste the data straight from COHA into Google Docs (works best with Chrome). Use the FREQ row in the CHART view if you're comparing two alternatives (e.g. [have] proved and [have] proven), or PER MIL if you're not.
  3. Create a "ratio" row using a formula (e.g. "=B1/(A1+B1)"; obviously it will be different depending on what two cells you're comparing)
  4. Copy that formula to all of the other columns on that row
  5. Insert the corpus headers (e.g. "1810 1820...") on the row above the "ratio" row
  6. Highlight the relevant cells in the header row and the ratio row and then Insert / Chart, and select type of chart
  7. File / Rename your spreadsheet to whatever you want
  8. Over in Google Sites, Insert / Chart and then select the chart from the file you just renamed

    Good luck!