3. Historical, dialects, and borrowing


See how historical events (e.g. wars, westward expansion) have influenced the language; American dialects; borrowing from other languages (Dutch, Spanish, etc).

You can choose between one of two formats for your project.

1. A project like this this sample project. About twelve words, and more or less the same format we've had to this point (narrative style, COHA and/or Google, and give approximate date of first occurrence)

2. For about six words, do more of a table format like the one below, listing 1) cultural relevance 2) OED first occurrence 3) COHA first occurrence 4) Google Books first occurrence, and for #2-4, give the first sentence. Highlight in yellow whichever source is first.

word/phrase cultural relevance OED COHA Google Books
stake one's claim Prospectors would have to "stake out" the land that was theirs, so that no one else would come in and take their gold 1851
It was estimated that ten thousand people were on the ground staking off ‘claims’.
but by what old law of the waters they find and stake their claim is yet to be discovered
he would regard it as an act of consummate folly to stake our claim on a trial of strength at this time


H I Hear America Talking (Flexner) [toc] PE 2846 .F5 1976, OR

S Speaking freely : a guided tour of American English from Plymouth Rock to Silicon Valley [Reseve]
(Stuart Berg Flexner and Anne H. Soukhanov)

1 Pilgrims and the Mayflower H 269-74
2 American H 7-9; S 8-12
3 English vs. American S 113-20
4 Taxation without Representation H 349-53
  Revolutionary War H 303-08
5 War of 1812 H 379-82
  Mexican-American War H 242-45
6 Covered wagons and Oregon Trail H 107-09
  Manifest Destiny H 142-44
7 Gold Rush H 174-79
8 Abolition H 1-4
  Civil War (up to 3 people) H 84-97
9 Reconstruction H 291-98
10 "Gay 90s" H 162-63
  Spanish-American War H 324-33
  Immigrants H 192-94
11 World War I (up to 3 people) H 391-417
12 Roaring 20s H 308-11
  Prohibition H 286-90
13 Great Depression H 116-18
  Dust Bowl H 129
  New Deal H 254-58
14 World War II H 417-57
15 Korean conflict H 220-29
16 Vietnam War H 364-76
  Watergate H 382-86
17 Dialects H 119-24
18 African-American H 31-59
19 Native American languages H 192-202
20 Dutch H 129-33
  Pennsylvania Dutch H 267-69
21 Germans H 163-71
22 French and Cajuns H 152-55, 20-22
  Italians H 214-17
23 Jews/Yiddish H 220-29
  Irish H 135-36
24 Spanish H 318-24