1. Circle the operators in the following sentences (there’s just one word per sentence).

Why in the world don’t you put that pathetic dog on a leash?

2. What are the two sentences that would result from contraction of the following phrases?

I have not eaten

3. Negate the following sentences (don’t use the word [not] -- use a contraction) (American vs British)

I have some money

4. Select the function of the N1 noun (i.e. the first noun in the N1+N2 sequence)

She smoothed her satin dress nervously = N2 is made from N1

5. Select the role of the question word in the following sentences (subject, object, adverbial)

why is she still here = adverbial

6. (Relative pronouns) Assign the tags “informal”, “normal”, and “formal” to each of the following sentences

the man [ __ / that / which ] you saw is my dad

7. Find the words, phrases, or clauses in the following sentences that serve as premodifiers or postmodifiers, and write them in the appropriate box below.  Don’t include any of the italicized words, and don’t include determiners (i.e. articles or demonstratives)

The large fir trees that you saw with your binoculars were dead, right? (premodifers = large, fir; postmodifiers = that you saw with your binoculars)

8. What is the function of the indicated noun phrases within the following relative clauses?  Or is it a noun complement?

the man [ that you saw __ ] already left = OBJ

9. Reduced sentences (B) are missing two things that non-reduced sentences like A do have.  What are they?

A: I saw [ that she left]                    B: I saw her [ leave ]

10. How many clauses are there in each of the following sentences?

E.g. the man that you saw is my brother = 2

11. Circle the dependent clause in the following sentences.  There is just one dependent clause in each sentence.

The plan is to talk with Fred tomorrow night

12. What is the function of the indicated dependent clause in the following sentences?

I guess [ he’s too tired ] = OBJ

13. What is the function of the [to] clause in each of the following sentences?  (subject raising, verb complement, adjective complement, object raising, subject, extraposed subject, nominal postmodifier)

it's important [ to study well ] = extraposed

14. Are each of the following cases of:

  • subject raising (subject of dependent clause becomes subject of main clause)

  • object raising (object of dependent clause becomes subject of main clause)

  • extrapositioning (subject of main clause moves to the end of the sentence)

this book is quite difficult [ to read ] = object raising

15. In each of the following, is the [-ING] clause a noun, a subject (not a noun), part of a progressive construction, a relative clause (modifies noun), or a verb complement? 

I like walking outdoors = verb complement

16. Are the following more common in spoken English, or in written academic English?

noun modifiers in general = formal / academic